As Gitlin and Smyth (1989) comment: 'Evaluation' from its Latin origin meaning ‘to strengthen’ or 'to empower' I recently wrote three short articles about the psychomotor, cognitive and affective domains.
This fourth article is about using evaluation to bring the learning together. As driving instructors, part of our job is to work with our clients' strengths so as to help them overcome their weaknesses and to empower them to take full responsibility for their learning. As I discovered, the Latin origin of 'evaluation' is so very apt because our role is to help our learners discover self-evaluation techniques for themselves that will serve them well in a post-test environment. The reason this is so important is that when they pass they will have hopefully only have near-misses and then will be able to work out the reasons behind what has happened and take preventative measures so as to avoid something similar happening again.
Evaluation is about your learner making judgments about situations that have happened - both good and bad - and then helping them to have a structure to work through that process. The ability to reflect and problem-solve is very useful to the newly qualified driver. Self-evaluation helps the learner identify a way forward for themselves.
Evaluation is also a way of effecting behavioural change and when we witness a positive change in behaviour - such as adjusting to the correct speed for the road and traffic conditions - we know that learning is taking place. The process of self-evaluation often occurs through a conversation between the learner and the instructor, where the instructor takes on the role of a facilitator and uses the process as a means of empowering the learner. What is happening in these conversations could be described as constructive criticism where the learner is taking ownership of the process and working it through for themselves. This could literally be a lifesaver once they have passed their test and they are on their own in the big wide world.
Evaluation allows the learner to look at the bigger picture - they are gathering information about what has been happening in their last training exercise, so they can describe the problem and put that situation into context. This will enable them, during their lessons with you, to transfer what has just happened into experiences they may have in the future. Evaluation is a powerful form of reflection, which allows you to look at areas of success and also any areas of development. It helps us plan a way forward and we can than judge the effectiveness and outcomes of the training. This leads to finding solutions to problems.
The purpose of evaluation, as Everitt et al (1992) is to reflect critically on the effectiveness of personal and professional practice. It is to contribute to the development of ‘good’ rather than ‘correct’ practice.
In my next article I will look at questions that can be used to help you facilitate the evaluation process by using a coaching conversation. If you are interested in learning how coaching helps you to facilitate your clients' development of critical thinking skills so they become safer drivers - and you haven't yet taken the plunge - then enrol on our BTEC Level 4 Professional Award in Coaching for Driver Development.
"Here is the third in a series of articles I have written on the subject of driving instructor training, first published in The Intelligent Instructor magazine.
I hope you enjoy it."
With the DVSA announcing that the Part 3 will be replaced with a Standards Check-style assessment, this series of articles continues to explore how we train people to be driving instructors and the knock-on effects of this training on teaching people to drive and, ultimately, on road safety.
In my last two articles, I focused on the current situation with the Part 3 test and looked at what the Part 3 assesses; whether it is fit for purpose; who are the trainers; and asked why bother changing what we currently have.
This article follows on from the previous ones and explores what makes a great lesson.
1. Learning must take place
There are several ingredients in a great lesson but the overall aims must be to:
· Deliver value for money and
· Ensure that learning takes place.
Ensuring learning takes place requires first and foremost a fundamental understanding of how individuals learn. We used to believe that learning took place through a transfer of knowledge from the instructor to the learner. The instructor was seen to be the font and source of all knowledge and information and this needed to be ladled into the gratefully-receiving learner. Repetitive practice through ever-decreasing levels of instruction – from guided to prompted to independent – embedded the learning; and a focus on the core competencies of fault identification, analysis and remedial action finished off the mix so that the learner could go off and take their driving test regurgitating the best practices their instructor had instilled into them. This way of teaching is based on an out-dated and old-fashioned understanding of how people learn. It produces drivers, who are not self-aware and do not know how to take ownership of and responsibility for the driving task. We only have to look at the crash statistics of novice drivers to know that this is true.
These days, we recognise that learning comes from within. It is not about a transfer of knowledge from the expert to the learner. For effective learning to take place, the learner must be encouraged to reflect on their performance and think for themselves. To achieve this, the lesson must be focused around the learner and adapted to suit their individual needs. It must be broken down into bite-size manageable chunks by the trainer so that the learner is very clear where their focus needs to lie.
2. Lesson Planning
The lesson must be well-planned in conjunction and agreement with the learner:
· Goals must be set so that the learner knows what they are setting out to achieve;
· The structure of the lesson needs to be agreed with the learner;
· A suitable route must be used; and
· The instructor must be able to adapt the lesson plan where necessary to ensure that learning will take place and the goal will be achieved.
3. Teaching and Learning Strategies
The instructor must have a range of teaching strategies, from which they can select the most effective to ensure the learner achieves the goals agreed. These include:
· Understanding how people process information and the barriers they might have to their learning;
· Recognising the importance of developing analytical skills in the learner that they will be able to apply to their own driving once they are on their own;
· Using examples to clarify the goal;
· Only giving appropriate and accurate technical information, ensuring it is comprehensive;
· Breaking the learning down into bite-size chunks so that regular and appropriate feedback can be built into the lesson;
· Following up the learner’s queries and answering them;
· Maintaining a non-judgemental manner; and
· Encouraging the pupil to reflect on their own performance.
4. Risk Management
We teach our learners to drive in a dangerous environment. If we could teach them to drive in a simulator there would not be so much risk around. However, we need to give people experience of the real world to help develop their self-evaluation skills, whilst simultaneously ensuring that learning takes place. The days of a lesson that is a ‘general drive’ - where we see and deal with whatever crops up along the way - are long gone. A lesson like this does not deliver value for money and does not ensure learning takes place because there is no goal being achieved and the learner is not taking ownership of their learning.
We have to manage the risk to ensure that learning takes place:
· The learner needs to understand how the responsibility for risk will be shared;
· Directions and instructions need to be given clearly and in good time;
· The trainer must be aware of the surroundings and the learner’s actions;
· Verbal and physical intervention must be timely and appropriate; and
· Sufficient feedback must be given after this intervention to ensure the learner understands the risks.
These ingredients combine to make a great lesson – whether that be for a learner driver or a potential driving instructor.
It is, therefore, no coincidence that the Standards Check assesses the extent to which the instructor has included these ingredients in their lesson; and that the new Part 3 – in the format of the Standards Check – will do the same.
Training driving instructors to incorporate these skills into their driving lessons will produce safer new drivers, who know how to self-evaluate and are able to take responsibility for their learning and the driving task.
My next article will focus on the qualities a great trainer needs to have, in order to deliver a great lesson.
The affective domain is what controls our behaviour and as driving instructors we witness every day the way people behave on the road, driven by their opinions and beliefs. I have looked at Krathwohl's affective domain taxonomy (1964) and you can find more information by a simple google search.The taxonomy is presented in five stages:
Receiving describes the stage of being aware of - or sensitive to - the existence of certain ideas or material and being willing to tolerate them. Being self-aware is often the critical first step to becoming a coach. It is all about being non-judgemental where listening to others' ideas is important. This does not mean that you will agree with them but having the ability to receive information can change your own thinking.
Responding describes the second stage of the taxonomy and refers to a commitment in some small measure to the ideas and materials involved by actively responding to them. You would respond by complying or volunteering to try something new. You can imagine how important this can be when driver training and actively listening to your pupil's ideas and encouraging them to try something new.
Valuing means being willing to be perceived by others as valuing certain ideas. This is about valuing your pupil's thoughts and ideas and being seen to do so. This could also be about valuing road safety or the law that surrounds road safety. You might encourage your client to debate with you the values embedded in the highway code.
Organization is the fourth stage of Krathwohl’s taxonomy and involves relating the new information you have received and examining how it fits in with your own beliefs and values or those others might hold, such as friends and family.
Characterization means acting consistently in accordance with the values the individual has internalized. This is when your own feelings are your own and not part of someone else's opinions and values. In young people, their characters are still developing and making sense of the world is part of their education. How adults behave on the roads may come as a surprise to some new learners. Helping them make sense of how they will fit in is important or they just might feel they need to copy others rather than have their own beliefs and values.
In the next brief article about these learning domains I will look at the psychomotor domain - possibly the one we focus on the most. In the meantime, if you are interested in learning and development, you may want to look at our BTEC Level 4 course in Coaching for Driver Development where we focus on how thoughts and feelings affect our performance and behaviour behind the wheel.
I was thinking about the Approved Driving Instructor Part 1 Theory Test and how the three learning domains are highlighted: Cognitive, Affective and Psychomotor. Over the next three emails I am going to talk about each one.The cognitive domain is all about our thought processes. When teaching thinking, it can be helpful to consider the level by level approach in Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning, which provides a framework of learning and building.
I first came across Bloom’s Taxonomy when studying for an advanced certificate of adult education. I have provided a link to a PDF which will give you more details.
There are six levels that work on producing critical thinking and this may prove useful to you as a driving instructor when you are helping to develop a thinking driver.
The six levels are:
Level I Knowledge
Level 2 Comprehension
Level 3 Application
Level 4 Analysis
Level 5 Synthesis
Level 6 Evaluation
Blooms Level I: Knowledge
This is focused on factual information and would be useful for targeting knowledge from The Highway Code and Driving - the essential skills. This level is about memory and recall of factual information. Questions that you would ask are fairly simple, for example, about the rules: 'How would you explain the rules of a yellow box junction?' or 'What do these road markings mean?'
Blooms Level 2: Comprehension
If your client can demonstrate their understanding of the facts, this would show their comprehension. You could also ask simple questions, like: 'Please explain why you would use offside to offside at crossroads?' or 'Look at this diagram of a multi-lane roundabout. Describe which lanes you would use when taking the fourth exit?'
Blooms Level 3: Application
Your clients need the ability to solve problems in new situations by applying acquired knowledge, facts, techniques and rules in a different, or new way. Quite often if you are test focused and tell your client how to do things in a certain way on a route they would lose the ability to problem solve and so when something different happens they lack the skills to work it out for themselves.You could ask them to plan a route that would involve parking at a railway station to pick up or drop off a passenger and get them to identify what challenges they might face at different times of day.
Questions you may ask would be: 'What would be the best direction to approach the station from?' or 'What would you do if you cannot find any where safe to stop when you get there?'
• How would you use…?
• How would you solve ___ using what you’ve learned…?
• What examples can you find to…?
• How would you show your understanding of…?
• How would you organize _______ to show…?
• How would you apply what you learned to develop…?
• What approach would you use to…?
• What other way would you plan to…?
• What would result if…?
• Can you make use of the facts to…?
• What elements would you use to change…?
• What facts would you select to show…?
• What questions would you ask during an interview?
Blooms Level 4: Analysis
You would get your client to examine what they are doing. For example, if your learner was struggling with a manoeuvre you might break the manoeuvre down into its component parts or take each one of the core skills and focus on one of them at a time whilst you take responsibility for the other two. They could then examine how control could be linked to accuracy and observational skills. Questions might be: 'How is control related to accuracy and observation?' 'What motivation do you have to stick to the speed limit?' 'Compare my driving to your own - what are the fundamental differences?'
Blooms Level 5: Synthesis
This is putting information together differently and is probably very challenging if your client doesn't have the ability to think outside the box. For example, imagine the road is narrow, there is a dustcart coming towards you and there is not enough room to pass. You could ask: 'What alternatives are there for you to pass this dustcart on this road?' 'Can you predict the outcome if you were to take this action on the test?' You could also encourage your client to blog their own learning experiences with you.
Blooms Level 6: Evaluation
In our industry, the biggest tool you can give your client is the ability to self-evaluate. Reflective logs help them in this process. You could also use questions that challenge their own thinking which would include words like: 'Defend your actions in this situation.' or 'Interpret what you are thinking so I can understand your point of view.' 'I value your thoughts and opinions of the driver of the blue car that has cut us up. Explain what you believe they were thinking?' Or create a story of crash that happened and discuss the contributory factors of that crash were.
I would imagine that we use Bloom's Taxonomy everyday in our training but how could you utilise this hierarchy of learning to improve your own training?
If you are interested in learning and development then you might like to consider joining us on the BTEC Level 4 Professional Award in Coaching for Driver Development where we help make the complex simple.
Latest update - New dates and locations for Wales, the North East, Scotland, the Midlands and the South East.Despite this week's announcement by the DVSA that the new Part 3 (Standards Check format) will not be introduced on 2nd October, it is still happening as soon as the legislation goes through Parliament - hopefully by the end of October. Click here to read the lastest news from Jacqui Turland (DVSA Registrar).
Tri-Coaching Train the Trainer courses will bring you right up to speed with the changes and you will take away with you the Tri-Coaching Instructor Training (TCIT) course to deliver as your own - dual-branded with your driving school logo.
Here are the dates of the next courses:
25th and 26th September in Livingston *SOLD OUT
7th and 8th November in Wetherby * LIMITED PLACES
**New Dates and Locations
24th and 25th October in Southampton
28th and 29th November in Bridgend
16th and 17th January in Derby
23rd and 24th January in Birmingham
20th and 21st February in Durham
27th and 28th February in Edinburgh
13th and 14th March in Tunbridge Wells
If you are already a trainer; or you would like to start training people to be driving instructors you might be interested in one of our Train the Trainer courses. These courses are proving to be very popular and sell out fast.
The Tri-Coaching Train the Trainer course lasts two days and gives you an instructor training package that you can use for your own instructor training and also prepares you to join the ORDIT register using our materials.
Tri-Coaching Partnership has a complete online driving instructor training package with 13 modules and a Course Book, which you can sell to your trainee driving instructors and then use in conjunction with your own training programme.
When you attend the two-day Train the Trainer course you will take away a set of reference materials, a full set of Trainer Guidance Notes to help you understand how to deliver TCIT, a TCIT Course Book and a CPD certificate of attendance.
The TCIT Package:
For further information about the content of the two-day course please click here.
Some reviews -
Sandra Harper - Gloucester
"Very enjoyable, quality course and also a timely reminder of how to excel in the profession as well as train others the best way possible. Great people in both the other candidates and trainers."
Zoe Anstey - Steyning
"I recently attended the Train the Trainer course in Newport Pagnell and I have to say that it was a revelation. The course delivered a dynamic, refreshing way of thinking and working when training people in the car. It has encouraged me to reflect on my training techniques and give me confidence to implement new ideas into my current practice and will support me to develop my instructor training for the future."
Pete Leach -Worcester
" The course completely blew me away! It was everything I expected and nothing I expected all at the same time. The rest of the industry needs to get its act together as this course is a revelation. I always think twice before spending money on training but this was worth every penny. Don't waste time thinking get your hand in your pocket and book a course with Tri-Coaching you will never look back."
Give me a ring if you would like to discuss any of the details or call 0800 058 8009 if you want to book your place over the phone.
This email continues the articles on Transactional Analysis (TA), which is a model of people and relationships that was developed during the 1960s by Dr. Eric Berne.Parent, Adult and ChildAs well as having external conversations with our clients, we also have internal conversations between ourselves as parents, children and also adults, and then we play at these roles in our external relationships.
In the previous emails I touched on the different types of roles we play when in the PAC states. The communications we have in these states are known as transactions.Communications (transactions)When two people communicate, each exchange is a transaction. Often our problems come from the transactions which are unsuccessful.
The parent child role is often triggered by the natural conversations we have and our personality gets triggered by the personality of the other person who evokes our responses. When we are dealing with young people it may be difficult for them to achieve an adult state [especially as driving instructors are usually a lot older] and contact with adults will often be parent to child. We trigger their subconscious responses by our own behaviour especially if we have adopted an instructor led approach.These relationships and the communications within them play many games between the positions, and there are rituals from greetings to whole conversations (such as the weather) where we take different positions for different events. These are often 'pre-recorded' as scripts we just play out. You may notice these happening at the start of lessons. They give us a sense of control and identity and reassure us that all is still well in the world. We also have to be careful because other games can be negative and destructive and we play them more out of a sense of habit and addiction than constructive pleasure.
ConflictAs driving instructors we are trying to avoid conflict both in the car and on the road and it is easier if the transactions are:
Complementary. They occur when both people are at the same level (Parent talking to Parent, etc.). Here, both are often thinking in the same way and communication is easier. Problems usually occur in Crossed transactions, where each is talking to a different level.
The parent is either nurturing or controlling, and often speaks to the child, who is either adaptive or ‘natural’ in their response. When both people talk as a Parent to the other’s Child, their wires get crossed and conflict results.
The ideal line of communication is the mature and rational Adult-Adult relationship.
Consequences and resolutionIf we are a Controlling Parent this will invite the other person into a Child state where they may conform with your demands. There is also a risk that they will be an Adaptive 'naughty child' and rebel. They may also take opposing Parent or Adult states.
Being a Nurturing Parent or talking at the same level as the other person acts to create trust.
Watch out for crossed wires. This is where conflict arises. When it happens, first go to the state that the other person is in to talk at the same level.
For rational conversation, move yourself and the other person to the Adult level.
Our focus as driving instructors is always to work towards creating a thinking driver who is in control of their emotions on the road. We can only do this if we ourselves are neutral and hold an unconditional positive regard for the other person. This at times can be challenging but coaching helps you diffuse any potential conflict and create great rapport that builds an equal relationship.
If you want to know how Tri-Coaching Partnership can help you then please contact us and look out for a course near you.
ReferencesEric Berne, (1964), Games People Play: The Psychology of Human Relationships, Balantine Books
Thomas Harris (1996), I'm OK-You're OK, Avon books
Muriel James and Dorothy Jongeward (1971), Born to Win: Transactional Analysis with Gestalt Experiments, Da Capo Press Inc
Following on from the article about Transactional Analysis personality states: Parent, Adult, Child, here are some clues that might help you differentiate the different states. Again, I took this information from the book Teaching, Training and Learning by Stephen Walker and Ian Reece.
Parental state verbal clues could be:
If I were you ......
There's no question ......
That's ridiculous .......
Well done ........
This is the way to do it ......
Non verbal clues could be:
Pursed lips, wagging fingers, horrified look, pat on the back or head
The Adult state verbal clues could be:
My view is ........
In what way ........
Can you say more .........
I think .........
Why, What, Where etc.
Non verbal clues could be:
Open alertness and giving attention
The Child state verbal clues could be:
I'd like .........
I don't care ....
I can't stand ......
Oh no ........
Non verbal clues could be:
Delight, rolling eyes, shrugging shoulders, laughter, raising hand to speak.
If you are trying to achieve an Adult state there will be influences from the other two states. When influenced by a Parent state, you might develop prejudices; and if influenced by a Child state this may result in phobias and delusions.
We are not psychiatrists but we should be expert communicators and we can help people by giving them what are described as 'strokes'.
If you want to know more about coaching or are looking for a course, which will help you develop and improve your skills, then contact us at Tri-Coaching Partnership. For about the price of a cup of coffee a day you can develop to your full potential and go on, like many others already have, to be amongst the most well-paid and respected trainers in your area. Remember, the journey of learning never stops.
I was re-reading about Transactional Analysis recently in a book called Teaching, Training and Learning by Ian Reece and Stephen Walker, which I had used when studying for my teaching qualification. It got me thinking about how the personality states of parent, adult and child from Transactional Analysis influence our relationships in the car; and are, therefore, relevant to how we teach and train as driving instructors.The three emotional states known as Parent, Adult, Child (PAC) were made famous by Eric Berne as a model of human behaviour known as Transactional Analysis.
As driving instructors we can sometimes find ourselves stuck in the Parent-Child relationship. This is where coaching comes in because it helps us form Adult-Adult relationships in the work place.
If you tell your pupil about appropriate behaviour on the road and judge them when they do something silly or get something wrong; if you sometimes feel protective towards your pupil, especially if other road users are putting them under pressure, you are possibly in a Parent-Child relationship at that point. There are two sides to this personality state: one is critical and controlling, and the other is nurturing.
At other times, you might notice you can be impulsive, natural, untrained, expressive or can modify your behaviour with experience or when you are influenced by others. You might then become cooperative, obedient and often sorry. We are often intuitive, have hunches, can be creative and inventive. All these traits are linked to being in a Child-like state. There are three states described in Child-like behaviour: the Adapted Child, the Little Professor, and the Free Child.
The Adult personality state is a good state to achieve when we are driving - or teaching driving -because, in this state, we have the ability to acquire and sort information; we have choices for alternatives; and we are able to plan and make decisions. This Adult state is sometimes quite hard to achieve if our emotions are interfering with our behaviour.
Having a better understanding of emotional states helps our communication process as we are ideally trying to get both parties to communicate Adult to Adult. When we are teaching people to drive, if the relationship is 'instructor-led' rather than 'client-centred', we are likely to be in a Parent-Child relationship.
If you would like to know more about coaching and building relationships that open up communications, talk to us at Tri-Coaching Partnership. Find out if there is a course near you that can help you develop and improve your communication skills by following this link.
"Here is the second in a series of articles I have written on the subject of driving instructor training, first published in The Intelligent Instructor magazine.
I hope you enjoy it."
With the DVSA announcing that the Part 3 will be replaced with a Standards Check-style assessment, this series of articles will explore how we train people to be driving instructors and the knock-on effects of this training on teaching people to drive and, ultimately, on road safety.
In my last article, I explored the current situation with the Part 3 test and looked at what the Part 3 assesses; and whether it is fit for purpose.
This article follows on from the previous one by still focusing on the current situation with the Part 3 test; discussing who are the trainers; and asking why bother changing what we currently have.
Who are the trainers?
There are some excellent trainers in our industry, who have loads of experience in training people to be driving instructors and have kept themselves up to date, understanding the relevance to road safety of the Goals for Driver Education and the DVSA National Driver and Rider Training Standard. They either have a background in teaching and education; or they have developed their knowledge and skills in these areas; or they are naturally gifted communicators. Trainers, like this, know that a client-centred learning approach is vital when training people to be driving instructors, if only because this will then be the approach that is used with learner drivers and the knock-on effect will be newly qualified drivers, who know how to think for themselves, self-evaluate and take responsibility for their learning and the driving task. They understand that this is the best approach because they are aware of the relevant reports to our industry: MERIT and HERMES and, most recently, RUE *.
There are other trainers in our industry, who are nowhere near as well informed and believe the best approach is to train to the tests – whether this is Part 1, Part 2, Part 3 for PDIs, or the Theory Test and Practical Test for learner drivers.
Any old ADI can be a Trainer … It’s not the result of motivation, focus and positive goal-setting. It is often the result of running away from what they don’t like, such as their job as a driving instructor. Some ADIs become trainers, not because this is the career path they mapped from the outset and this is part of their dreams and ambitions; but rather, because driving instruction is not what they thought it was going to be, pupils don’t want to learn, they don’t get the pass rates, they don’t earn the money they thought they would, and they have to permanently kowtow to the DVSA. How can they expect to inspire and motivate their PDIs with this negative mindset?
We must change because Trainers teach to a test. They know inside out what is expected of their PDIs when they take the Part 3 but they do not fully get the point of the Part 3. They say,
‘It’s going to take me ages to teach you everything you need to know about the Part 3 test, how it is structured, what the Examiner needs to see, and what each subject entails, whether at Phase 1 or Phase 2. So, it might be six months away but let’s get started on it now with Cockpit Drill and Controls.’
The PDI has their mind blown with all this knowledge and information they are supposed to take on board. Where is the development of their lesson planning skills, their risk management skills and their teaching and learning strategies? It must be buried deep under the mound of information around the subject – information that they have already learned for their Part 1 and demonstrated on their Part 2.
We must change because only nine percent of those people, who receive their PRN from the DVSA, actually qualify as an ADI. This appalling figure means that 91% have their dreams smashed. Part of the reason why so few people achieve what they set out to achieve is down to the fact that Trainers train to a test. There is no client-centred learning going on here. PDIs aren’t encouraged to take responsibility for their own learning. They don’t get to set the goals and determine the structure of their learning. Trainers are not delivering the Driver and Rider Training Standard (in effect, the syllabus) to their PDIs. They are confusing the PSTs for the Syllabus.
When people are not encouraged to take responsibility for their learning, there is no real learning taking place. This is as true for learner drivers as it is for trainee driving instructors, as it is for every single one of us.
The Standards Check, with its three broad competences of:
· Lesson Planning
· Risk Management
· Teaching and Learning Strategies
is drawn from the DVSA National Driver and Rider Training Standard and this will be the assessment for the new Part 3 test. If Trainers develop the seventeen competences in their PDIs, using whatever subjects they wish, newly qualified driving instructors will have more of a chance of producing safe, self-evaluating and responsible drivers from their pupils.
Having looked at the current situation by exploring what the Part 3 assesses; whether it is fit for purpose; who are the trainers; and why do we need to change, my next article will look at what makes a great driving lesson.
*MERIT (Minimum European Requirements for Driving Instructor Trainers)
*HERMES (High impact approach for Enhancing Road safety through More Effective communication Skills)
*RUE (Road Users Education)